Gender Bargains in a Pentecostal (Born-Again) Marriage: Divorce as a Socio-religious Discourse in the Glorious Vessels International Chat Group
AbstractThe rise of the Pentecostal movement in the last three decades is one of the most striking features in the global topography of contemporary religion. In Switzerland, the Pentecostal or charismatic movement is the most popular strand of migrant Christianity. This article is based on a three-year online ethnographic participant observation of different Nigerian-led online Pente-costal groups. The use of diverse interactive spaces seems to be of particular significance to both mega and non-mega Nigerian-led Pentecostal migrant churches in the country. By exploring the social practices of online commu-nities such as the Glorious Vessels International WhatsApp chat group, the article shows how different forms of biblical patriarchy shape conversations that â€œrecogniseâ€ or â€œrepressâ€ the rights and roles of women â€“ their economic status and sexuality in born-again movements. The exchange of ideas that ensued on the issues of divorce among members of Glorious Vessels International shows how bargaining in the physical (real) world is transferred into the online environment. I analyse this phenomenon by understanding the ideal online religious community as an assemblage that promotes a certain gendered image of the prosperous family.
Adogame. Afe. â€œReverse Mission: Europe a prodigal Continent.â€ The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Unpublished Study Material, 2006.
Adogame, Afe. Religion Crossing Boundaries: Transnational Religious and Social Dynamics in Africa and the New African Diaspora. Leiden, London: Brill, 2019.
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflection on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1993. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/imagined_communities.
Barfoot, Charles H. and Gerald T. Sheppard. â€œProphetic vs Priestly Religion: The Role of Women Clergy in Classical Churches.â€ Review of Religious Research 22 no.1 (1960): 2-17. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3510481.
Butler, Judith. â€œPerformative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theology.â€ Theatre Journal 40, no.4 (1988): 519-31.
Christensen, Miyase, AndrÃ© Jansson and Christian Christensen. Online Territories: Globalization, Mediated Practice and Social Space. Weil am Rhein: Peter Lang Publishing, 2011.
Dawson, Lorne L. and Douglas E. Cowan (eds.). Religion Online: Finding Faith on the Internet. London: Routledge, 2013.
DeLanda, Manuel. A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage theory and Social Complexity. Hampshire: Ashford Colour Press Ltd., 2006.
Gifford, Paul. â€œThe Prosperity Theology of David Oyedepo, Founder of Winners.â€ In Pastures of Plenty: Tracing Religio-Scapes of Prosperity Gospel in Africa and Beyond, edited by Andreas Heuser, 83-100. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing, 2015.
Glorious Vessels. â€œHope Now,â€ 2019. www.gloriousvessels.org/de/event/hope-now-live-tv-christian-counselling-6/ (Accessed 6 August 2019).
Heuser, Andreas. â€œCharting African Prosperity Gospel Economies.â€ HTS Theological Studies 72 no.3 (2016): 2-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i1.3823.
Hunt, Stephen. â€œManaging the demonic: Some Aspects of the neo-Pentecostal deliverance ministry.â€ Journal of Contemporary Religion 13, no.2 (2008): 215-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537909808580831.
Ihejirika, Walter C. â€œIn-Line Religion: Innovative Pastoral Applications of the New Information and Communication Technologies (NICTS) by the Catholics of Nigeria.â€ Politics and Religion Journal 2, no.2 (2008): 79-98. www.politicsandreligionjournal.com/index.php/prj/article/view/173.
Jacobs, Stephen. â€œVirtually Sacred: The Performances of Asynchronous Cyber-Rituals in Online Spaces.â€ Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 12, no.3 (2007): 1103-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00365.x.
Jones, Steven G. Cybersociety 2.0: Revisiting Computer-Mediated Communication and Community. London, New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1998.
Kalu, Ogbu. African Pentecostalism: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Kandiyoti, Deniz. â€œBargaining with Patriarchy.â€ Gender and Society 2 no.3 (1988): 274-90. https://doi.org/10.1177/089124388002003004.
Martin, Bernice. â€œThe Pentecostal Gender Paradox: A Cautionary Tale for the Sociology of Religion.â€ In The Blackwell Companion to Sociology of Religion, edited by Richard K. Fenn, 52-66. Malden, Oxford, Melbourne, Berlin: The Blackwell Publishing, 2001.
Mate, Rekopantswe. â€œWombs as Godâ€™s Laboratories: Pentecostal Femininity in Zimbabwe.â€ Africa 72, no.4 (2002): 549-68. https://doi.org/10.3366/afr.2002.72.4.549.
Meyer, Birgit. â€œChristianity in Africa: From African Independent to Pentecostal-Charismatic Churches.â€ Annual Review of Anthropology 33 (2004): 447-8. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143835.
Oderinde, Peter A. â€œThe Role of Internet in Migrantsâ€™ Christianity: A Case Study of Nigerian-Led Pentecostal Churches in Switzerland.â€ PhD diss., University of Basel, 2019.
Pears, Angie. Doing Contextual Theology. London: Routledge, 2009.
Riswold, Caryn D. â€œConversations and Intersections: A Third-Wave Feminist Approach to Gender, Christianity and Theology.â€ In Sex, Gender and Christianity, edited by Priscilla Pope-Levison and John R. Levison, 80-100. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2012.
Taylor, T.L. â€œLiving Digitally: Embodiment in Virtual Worlds.â€ In The Social Life of Avatars: Presence and Interaction in Shared Virtual Environment, edited by Ralph Schroeder, 40-62. London: Springer, 2002.
Taylor, Yvette, Emily Falconer and Ria Snowdown. â€œQueer Youth, Facebook and Faith: Facebook Methodologies and Online Identities.â€ New Media & Society 16, no.7 (2014): 1138-53. https://doi.org/10.1177/146144481444814544000.
Weiss, Gilbert and Ruth Wodak (eds.). Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.